Urinary tract infection (UTI) nursing management of the treatment, signs and symptoms and causes for the following conditions: cystitis, pyelonephritis, urethritis, ureteritis.
A urinary tract infection is an infection found within the urinary tract which is mainly caused by a bacteria (usually E.coli from the GI tract). It can also be caused by a virus or fungus as well.
A UTI can be found anywhere through the urinary system such as:, Lower urinary system: Urethra (Urethritis) and Bladder (Cystitis) or the upper urinary system: Ureters (ureteritis) which is usually associated with bladder or kidney infection and Kidneys (pyelonephritis).
There are many defense systems in the urinary tract that help prevent a urinary tract infection. However, if these defense systems are broken down a urinary tract infection can develop. These defense system include: physiology of how urine drains out of the kidneys (no back flowing), urine itself (sterile and has antiseptic properties), lining of the urinary tract (immune cells to fight infection), prostate gland (secrete antimicrobial fluid), and normal flora of the vagina (good bacteria to fight bad bacteria).
What are the causes of a urinary tract infection (UTI)? The following can cause a UTI: Hormone changes: pregnancy, menopause, birth control (changes the normal flora in the vagina), Antibiotics: changes the normal flora of the body, Renal Stones: cause blockage..urine stays in the kidneys and can’t drain, Diabetes: compromised circulation, the immune system is not able to work as strong as it should to fight the infection, high glucose in the urine (breeding ground for bacteria to flourish), bladder doesn’t empty as it should (urinary retention from nerve damage), Toiletries: excessive bubble baths, powders, perfumes, especially scented tampons and sanitary napkins, Obstructive prostatic hypertrophy…seen in male with BPH: The urethra which is surrounded by the prostate gland becomes squeezed shut from the large prostate gland which causes urine to stay in the bladder longer and the prostate gland isn’t able to properly secrete fluid that has antimicrobial properties, Vesicoureteral reflux: most common in pediatric patients and it causes urine from the bladder to back flow into the kidneys (usually congenital defect) due to a ureter valve problem, Overextended bladder, Indwelling catheters or invasive procedures, Intercourse, especially with the usage of spermicides, incontinence of the bowel, and Decreased immune system.
Symptoms of urinary tract infection include: Pain when voiding (burning), Persistent need to void but not a lot is voided or can’t void, Odor to urine that is dark and cloudy (can have blood), Cramping in abdomen or pain at the costovertebral angle, Spasms of the bladder or urethra, Fever, Increased WBC on U/A
Nursing management of UTI includes: assessing for signs and symptoms of UTI (catch it before it becomes complicated), Maintain fluid status (intake and output), control pain, monitor for complications, administer medications per MD order, EDUCATE the patient about how to prevent and follow MD treatment plan for UTI etc.
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